Dave Cheney already has written Functional options for friendly APIs in 2014. I don’t have much to add.
I initially saw this pattern as Go’s named parameters alternative. But this pattern also works as an alternative for function overloading.
Changing a function signature in a large codebase is always hard regardless of programing languages. I often use function overloading to make the signature backward-compatible, but I cannot do that in Go. Functional options come in handy as a way to have extensible APIs.
FYI, Google researchers have published Detecting argument selection defects in 2014. According to the research paper;
We were able to show that the probability of an argument selection defect increases markedly beyond 5 parameters. One option for methods with many parameters is to redesign using a fluent interface or parameter objects. Another alternative is the use of named parameters, which could be emulated in Java with a static check in Error Prone which inspects the comments on arguments.
So, if your Go function takes more than 5 parameters, consider functional options.